Ujung Kulon (English: Western End or Point West) National Park is located at the westernmost tip of Java, within Banten province of Indonesia. It includes the volcanic island group of Krakatoa in Lampung province, and other islands including Panaitan, as well as smaller offshore islets such as Handeuleum and Peucang in the Sunda Strait.
The national park stretches across the Ujung Kulon Peninsula, Panaitan Island, Peucang Island, Handeleum islands, and Honje Mountain Range. Administratively, Ujung Kulon National Park is located within the Sumur and Cimanggu districts, in the Pandeglang Regency, in the province of Banten.
The most precious of all the animals in the parks is the Javan rhinoceros, the rarest large mammal on earth. It is the only remaining home of the critically endangered Javan rhinoceros. A population of fifty to sixty live in Ujung Kulon. A smaller population lived in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, but the last remaining member of this population, and its entire subspecies, died last year at the hands of poachers.
The Javan Rhinos are known as the largest animals on Java and the second largest animals in Indonesia after the Asian Elephant. This extraordinary creature is extremely rare and barely makes its appearance noticeable. Some of the locals even regard the Javan rhino as more than a mere animal but almost like a near sacred ancient creature. Aside from the Javan Rhino, Ujung Kulon National Park is also home to many other special wildlife.
Containing the most extensive remaining stand of lowland rainforest on Java, a habitat that has virtually disappeared elsewhere on the island and is under severe pressure elsewhere in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, the peninsula of Ujung Kulon provides invaluable habitat critical for the survival of a number of threatened plant and animal species, most notably the endangered Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus).
The Javan rhino is not known to occur in the wild anywhere else on earth and Ujung Kulon is believed to sustain the last viable natural population, estimated at approximately 60 individuals. Efforts to protect the Javan rhino’s remaining habitat and individuals have become a symbol for protection of rainforest of worldwide significance, adding to the international importance of the management and preservation of the Ujung Kulon ecosystem.The property also provides a valuable refuge for 29 other species of mammals; nine of which are on the IUCN red list with three species considered endangered and including leopard (Panthera pardus), the endemic Javan gibbon (Mylobates moloch) and Javan leaf monkey (Presbytis comata). Avifauna recorded within the property includes 270 species while two species of crocodile, the endangered false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) and the vulnerable estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) are included in the reptile and amphibian species recorded for the property. In addition to the rich fauna 57 species of rare plants have also been recorded.
Get in Ujung Kulon
The easiest way to get in is by purchase a tour from a resort in Anyer. The price will be around Rp 1.5 million-3 million depending on the length of stay. The price goes down if the number of the people joining the tour increases. It takes around 3-4 hours from Anyer to Peucang Island where the accommodation and national park office are situated.
The cheapest way to get here is by public transport. The journey can start from Kalideres bus station in the West Jakarta. The bus is green heading in the direction of Labuan. The cost is around Rp 25,000 one way. It takes 3 hours to arrive in Labuan from Kalideres bus station. From Labuan, the journey will continue to Sumur or directly to Taman Jaya the last point before Ujung Kulon National Park. In Labuan, a lot of touts telling you there is no bus to Sumur or Taman Jaya. They offer ojek (motorcyle transport) for the transport and off course more expensive than the bus. There are buses to Sumur every hour, but only one bus go directly to Taman Jaya every day. The bus to Taman Jaya leaves at noon around 12.00 AM, so it is better to leave Kalideres in the morning around 7.00 or 8.00 AM. The bus to Taman Jaya is not parking in the bus station. It usually park outside the bus station around 20 meters on the left side of the bus station. The bus will leave after full with the passengers. The bus fee to Sumur is Rupiah 25000 (USD 2.8) and to Taman Jaya Rp 40000 (USD 4.5). It will not easy drive. Most the road along 98 km is in bad condition. The journey to Sumur takes 3 hours and to Taman Jaya 4 hours. If you cannot manage go to Taman Jaya, the trips suppose to be continued by Ojek from Sumur. The cost will around Rp 30000-40000 (USD 3.5-4.5) depend on negotiation.
Actually, there are also options to get a tour in Sumur and Labuan, but most of the local budget traveler will be heading to Taman Jaya to get the cheapest option to travel to the Ujung Kulon National Park. In Taman Jaya, there is a famous local people even in Sumur and Labuan named Pak Komar. He organizes transport (boat) and trip to Ujung Kulon. The price for the boat is Rp 1000,000 (USD 105) for one way. It is better to organize a trip here. Take a trip for 3-4 days with boat in Ujung Kulon. If you are lucky to have more than 10 persons,the price will not higher than Rupiah 1000,000 (USD 105) for 3-4 days trip. The price will include guide, food (local off-course), park entry fee, accommodation in Peucang Island and boat. There is also organized jungle trekking from Taman Jaya to Ujung Kulon for 4 days to 1 week. All the price are negotiable and cheaper.